12 Best GPS Running Watches Reviewed
Searching for GPS Running Watches? Take a look at the top rated GPS watches of 2017, Pros & Cons and what to be aware of before buying them in a store.
How To Find The Best GPS Watch For Running.
It’s probably not a surprise that Garmin has a near-monopoly on the best GPS running watches and If you hear the word “fitness-watch” and think of “Fitbit,” you’re not wrong, but these watches have really grown into high-tech fashion statements and trainers. They’re waterproof, ultra-battery-packed with lives up to a month long, and most these days connect to smartphones and websites so you can text and call if need be or report to your laptop to review your progress. There are also other good brands on the market today, and Garmin is not the only brand you should consider. Other viable brands includes Polar, Suunto, TomTom and Even Nike.
They’ve got built-in workouts for multiple sports and fun features like interval training and the ability to race yourself. Sports Watches are for more than just workouts, most also track your daily activity, keeping you on track of your fitness and health. Tracking your running or fitness has never been more affordable and accessable to runners all over the world. We recommend that you do not spend a fortune on your first GPS running watch, if you have been running for less than 2 years. People often make the mistake of buying a watch that is too complicated for them to use and it will end up in a closet and not on your wrist!
10 Best GPS Running Watches
1. Suunto Spartan Ultra
- Advanced Metrics
- 26h battery life
- Access to numerous training programs and data analysis on the Movescount App and Movescount.com
- Very expensive watch
2. Garmin ForeRunner 920XT
- Record speed, distance, grade, and many other important metrics
- VO2 Max, recovery time and race predictor estimations
- Smart notifications including email, text, and call alerts
- Activity tracker during, before, and after workouts
- Automatic uploads to Garmin Connect for workout reviewing and social sharing
- Lightweight and comfortable
- Not the most efficient for indoor training
3. Garmin Fenix 3
- Water-resistant construction
- 1.2" CHROMA display
- Tracks time, distance, pace, speed, BPM heart rate, calories burned, mapped routes, pace and even elevation changes
- Omni-directional EXO antenna
- Some users had problems with GPS accuracy in deeper forests
4. Suunto Ambit3 Sport
- GPS and multisport utilities
- User-friendly functions
- Personalized features and specific metrics for each sport and activity
- Smart notifications for e-mail, messages, etc.
- Not too good supporting third-party fitness apps
5. Garmin Forerunner 735XT
- Great for triathletes, with multisport tracking
- Insight on multiple important metrics
- 24/7 heart rate monitoring without any extra attachments
- Water resistant casing
- A bit expensive
6. Fitbit Surge
- Tracks workouts and daily exercise
- Sleep detection and alarm clock
- Music control, text and call notifications connected to Smartphone
- Weeklong battery life
- Touchscreen display
- The band fit strangely for some
7. Polar V800
- Tracks pace, distance, calories burned, and max heart rate.
- Works as an activity tracker after your workout, counting steps and general activity
- 14-hour battery life
- Barometric altimeter maps ascents and descents
- Syncs to Polar Flow App and web service for analyzing your numbers
- Some aren't crazy about the design of the charging port
8. Garmin Forerunner 630
- Tracks metrics such as stride length, ground contact time balance, cadence and even vertical oscillation
- Measures stress score, performance, recovery time and predicted race times
- Difficulties maintaining satellite tracking in some environments
9. TomTom Spark
- Wide variety of uses
- Step and calorie counters
- Records heart rate and running statistics
- Mp3 capability
- Available in multiple colors
- Some had issues with the bluetooth connection to headphones while running
10. Apple Watch Series 2
- Dual-core processor for optimal speed
- Inclusive training application
- High-end GPS tracking
- 50 meter deep water resistance
- Accesories and replacements are expensive
11. Nike+ SportWatch by TomTom
- Personal coach reminds you to run and tracks run history and PRs
- 8 hours of run time
- Nike+ integrated
- Nike+ Shoe Sensor for more accurate tracking
- Some runners had issues with battery life.
- Some runners had issues downloading the Nike+ software onto their computer.
12. Apple Watch Nike+ Series 2
- Perforations on band allow for good ventilation
- Built-in GPS
- Water resistant up to 50 meters
- Nike+ Run Club app
- Includes standard Apple Watch features such as Siri, texting and Apple Pay
- Some runners had issues with battery life.
Well, there you have it. Whether you’re a serious athlete training for a triathlon or Ironman competition, a long distance runner looking to perfect your time, pace, and distance, or you’re just a newbie looking to take better care of your body and increase your daily activity, these are the best picks out there.
Running watches come in different designs, sizes and serving many different functions. Deciding the best watch for your workout and running practices, one has to know what exactly he or she is looking for in features, functionality and purpose. This makes it easier in narrowing down to the type of watch one can use efficiently. Before you buy one, you need to know what functions and features are going to work best for you.
Whether you’re just starting out as part of a new year’s resolution or you’re well on your way to becoming a member of the 100 Marathon Club, tracking your runs is a brilliant motivator and can improve performance as well. But choosing the best running watch for you can be just as tricky as picking out the perfect pair of running shoes.
The best running watch or GPS sports watch is a personal choice, and increasingly depends on the amount of detail you want from your workouts.Beyond just simple pace and distance information, the latest watches will feed back everything from heart rate data to detailed observations of your running style. In short, GPS watches have become an essential tool in the runner’s arsenal.
GPS capabilities now assist runners and trainers with developing beneficial routes, showing where the athlete may be struggling so he/she can strategize and improve their weaknesses. Some watches may contain only a few of these features, while others will have nearly all of them. As you might expect, the more programs a watch has the more likely it is to come with a higher price tag.
They might as well be personal trainers, and with the ability to track your progress online and share routes and success with friends, they’ll give you that boost of motivation so many of us need as goals become harder and harder to reach. It’s exciting to see such advanced technologies, that somehow manage to stay charged for longer and ar even fashionable for when you’re off the track or trails.
It might seem like an odd question to ask in a running watch buying guide but this is actually really important. It’s a decision that’s not getting any easier, either. In the market, there are now countless brands and hundreds of products to choose from which makes it even harder to decide which one is the best brand for your work out and running.
The Criteria We Used For Our Evaluation Of GPS Watches
What Features Do They Offer?
The amount of features that one of these devices has to offer is the most clearly defining factor that sets each one of them apart from each other. In a market segment that is flooded with models that can provide a host of monitoring and tracking features, it’s important to cut through the clutter and select an option that gives our readers what they need most, and none of what is just superfluous inclusions for the sake of seeming hi-tech.We also make sure that You are able to learn using watch quickly as You don’t want to spend hours on reading an instruction.
Outdoor And Indoor Performance.
It’s important that a GPS watches have the diversity that most runner require. When researching what they wanted most, runners consistently mentioned that being able to accurately measure distance on indoor and outdoor runs was frequently at the top of their list. There are times when it’s raining and their running sessions call for a treadmill workout. We made sure to include options that included built-in accelerometers for when you want to go for a run, but Mother Nature has different plans.
Ability To Integrate Into Your Training Regimen.
In order to truly get the most from this piece of gear, it’s important to take into account how it can become a personal trainer. Moving beyond the basics of measuring distance and giving you an enriched and informative experience. It doesn’t matter if you’re a seasoned runner, or just starting out, it’s now possible to train for 5k, 10k, half and full marathons using nothing more than something that you can strap on your wrist. This type of comprehensive data tracking used to require a journal and tedious note taking. Now, you can simply throw it on and hit the road with all the focus on your run.
The Right Tech, At The Right Price.
It is extremely important to us that our readers are never priced out of the running accessories that can take their passion and joy running to the next level. Everyone, regardless of budget, should have the ability to access advanced gear that keeps track of valuable metrics. We made sure to include a choice that would fit every reader’s budget. We also made sure that all the watches were dependable and runner approved so that you can count on their utility for your runs.
Intuitive User Interface
Let’s face it; having valuable running data such as distance, pace, and heart rate is useless if you are unable to easily access it and track it. We looked at what runners had to say about ease of use both while on the run and when combining the data with apps after the run. The last thing a runner wants to do is slow down to fumble with their gear, interfaces should be intuitive to use and easy to read with large and legible font.
Both style and durability
Form and function can always be a little tricky in the runner’s world. Having a nice looking, functional device that works when you need it is crucial. Runner’s can’t afford to sacrifice function for form. This is why while we made sure to include options that come in a variety of looks and styles, we also made sure that durability and function were factors in all selections. The runner’s arm is no place for a fragile piece of equipment.
Other Important Factors To Consider When Choosing The Best GPS Watch
While we have researched through a wide range of feedback and data when compiling our list, we understand that in order to truly get the most out of your purchase, you must make a selection that makes sense for your purposes and how you plan to utilize their many features. A great option should have all the features you need in order to best suit you. Below you will find some personal factors to take into consideration when making your choice.
How Much Do You Plan On Incorporating It Into Your Run?
The first thing to consider is your preference when it comes to the level of incorporation that you are comfortable with. If you are the type of runner that does not like to keep track of advanced metrics such as elevation and “stress levels”, then chances are you don’t need a model with a barometric altimeter. Research shows that runners benefit the most from equipment that they are comfortable using, so focus on the tracking metrics that you need. Likewise, if you’re an ”information junky” then you’re going to appreciate a model with advanced data recording like ground contact time, cadence (number of steps per minute you take while running), and vertical oscillation.
How Connected Do You Want To Be During Your Runs?
Keep this preference in mind when making your decision to save yourself the hassle of checking your smartphone while you’re out on your run or in the middle of a workout. Today’s runners can receive notifications when they receive an email, text, or call. There are even models in our buying guide that connect to social media accounts and live streams your runs. If this is a little too much sharing for you, and you enjoy leaving the phone at home and disconnecting when you run, make sure to select an option that matches your level of need when it comes to peace and quiet.
How Important Is Music To Your Run?
Most runners reported that they are able to keep better focus and maintain a steady pace when they are running to their favorite playlist. Others prefer to leave the music behind when they hit the road. If you are the former, be sure to pick an option that allows you to download your favorite mp3’s. This can even help you leave your audio player at home when you run, giving you one less piece of equipment when you are out the door, thereby streamlining your training. Many watches have wireless headphones so You can enjoy the music without limits.
Think About How Much Battery Life You Really Need.
It’s a good idea to keep in mind how often you run and how long you run for. This is crucial when selecting the right amount of battery life for you. Important things to keep in mind according to runners just like you include taking into consideration in-active time. Batteries will still lose some charge when the device is not in use, so just because the manufacturer claims an 18 hour battery life, doesn’t mean that it’s exact, these are approximations. Runners also report that all models require regular recharging, so if you’re like most people and constantly forget to charge your phone, remember to keep that charger handy.
Size And Weight
All wrists are different, so it’s important to take size and weight into consideration. Comfort is key when you are adding new pieces of equipment to your running or workout gear, so choose an option that is not too large or bulky for your wrist. Runners found that weight is the “tie breaker” when making their decision. So after you take everything else into consideration (features, battery life, music) then go for the lightest option when you find two brands or types that have identical options.
Water resistance: Most outdoor watches are at least somewhat water resistant. Some are capable of diving much deeper than the human body. Many watches are rated to a depth of 100 meters, or about 300 feet. This is sufficient for pretty much anything short commercial diving or competitive free diving. Even recreational scuba divers will never go deeper than 130 feet.
Handling: Quick and easy access to programs without complicated directions eliminates frustration and wasted time. Expect some learning to be involved with new equipment, but simpler is usually better. Even powerful GPS watches can usually be navigated with just a few buttons if the interface is well engineered.
Running GPS Watch Timing Features
Watches have variety of functionality apart from the well known, showing of the time. some of the functions of a GPS running watch, either analog or digital, are to display the current date of the running exercise, the calendar, giving the runner options to set alarm and to time their running by checking and setting the stopwatch.
When choosing a GPS running watch, a runner should consider these features as they are useful more so to a runner.
Display of the GPS Running Watch
The display of the GPS watch is another important feature to consider as a runner. It is the display that attracts the runner and makes the runner feel happy and always want to use the GPS watch. Different watches have different displays, colors, designs and materials. Like wise, different runners are attracted to different kind of watch displays. It is advisable that a runner to choose a GPS running watch that is appealing to his or her eyes. The watch should also display vital information like the current date, calender’s, alarm and stop watch set. The running watch should also display information like the heart beat rate of the runner and the altitude and map of the runners’ exercise.
Keeping Your pace- it’s crucial
A lot of GPS watches have special alarms in order to make sure that You run with the most suitable pace for You. GPS watch can easily analyze Your heart rate and it sends notification to slow down. It can be really helpful as You can still make progress but You do it with a smaller risk of overexerting . Keeping your pace on good level is excellent when You want to lose weight and if You do, make sure it counts calories.
As running becomes passion, more and more people are deciding to run in more inconvenient weather conditions. It is worth to make sure that the watch You choose has sunlight-readable touchscreen but You may also run during the night so it would be perfect if the watch had backlighting. When it comes to the font, make sure that it is easily visible- high resolution display is very important. It is also an advantage if it has colorful display. Having three information on a screen for example heart rate, the distance You’ve done and timing is best option. Too much information on the screen can make it harder to use a watch.
Here are some frequently asked questions that most runners encounter when making their decision. Hopefully, they will help you along your way when you are making your decision.
Q. I’m looking to train for my first 5k; what should I be looking for in an ideal model?
A: The number one thing to consider in your circumstance is interval training. Look for a watch that has the capacity to set an interval training program to help you gradually improve your speed and fitness levels to meet specific goals. This will give you the highest chances for success and make sure you don’t suffer from unnecessary injury.
Q. I’ve heard that they often tend to “lag”, what’s this about?
A: There is a moment that all watches take when locking into your location on the map. While the first generations of GPS watches took longer to fix in on your location, there have been great strides in GPS technology and you will not experience significant lag time with newer models found in our buying guide.
Q. I’m an old-school runner; what are the benefits of using one of these?
A: Being old-school doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t consider using this kind of gear. It’s a great tool that seasoned runners everywhere rely on to improve their workouts. In fact, getting too comfortable and set in your ways can have detrimental effects and allow you to plateau. Think you run fast? How do you know? Think you still feel fresh when you hit the midway point of your run? The only real way to know is by using a GPS watch that ensures accuracy to that you can set realistic goals and have fun reaching them.
Q: Can’t I just use my smartphone to track my runs?
A: We found that runners that use their smartphone to track their runs, do so for less than a year before they buy a GPS watch or quit tracking all together. They report a number of reasons for this including accuracy, ease of use, and types of trackable metrics. Make no mistake, these are specialized pieces of equipment and a smart phone will never match their ability to keep very accurate data that you can conveniently access when you run.
If you want to continue keeping track of your runs, but are tired of dragging your smartphone along, then you’ve already made the decision to get one of these. Next time you observe runners at the starting line of a marathon, notice how many have them on and how many are fumbling around on their smart phones.
Q. what weather features should running Watches have?
A. These watches include barometers, altimeters, digital compasses and thermometers. They can posses all four of these features or just one along with some of the attributes mentioned previously.
There are variety of different features a GPS running watch should have. A running watch may either have one feature, some or sometimes all the features. These external weather features on a GPS running watch include thermometers, barometers, compasses and altimeters.
This weather feature is used to measure humility of the location of the runner. It is useful in the GPS running watch because the runner gets to be alerted or warned on strong rise of showers to bad snowstorms whenever the runner is exercising on the hillsides or lake sides. This feature is very important to a runners running watch because the runner will be always updated on the humility change whenever the Barometer on the running watch falls and rises in atmospheric pressure.
Just like the barometer, this weather feature in a running watch deals with humility but the Altimeter goes more specific to defining the difference in barometric pressure which automatically drops as the runner climbs on an inclined land such as a hill or mountain. This weather tool is mostly of importance to runners to run or exercise in hilly areas mostly in the country sides. Some runners also opt to using GPS for the same reason, that is gauging altitude.
When a runner is considering to choose a GPS running watch with this Altimeter feature, he or she should consider to review the accuracy and the capabilities of the Altimeter in the running GPS watch. Many additional watch features like the weather feature to a running watch require are more delicate and for the runner to take good maintenance on them in order to avoid break down of the feature on the GPS running watch. But still, the runner should concentrate more on the train but not on the altimeter on the running watch.
This is the most fundamental weather feature every GPS watch have. Especially if the runner trails on plain grounds or in the back country. I mean,what is a run without knowing onto which side of the location are you running on?Assume you are in the forest or unfamiliar location of exercise, you can easily get lost. This is why every runner should have this weather feature on their GPS running watch. Recent models of watches with this feature uses either solar as energy for the functioning or the watches battery. A runner should be on the check if the Digital Compass feature is working and have back up battery or just a separate analog compass in case the Digital Compass fails.
Q. Are GPS Training and running Watches compatible with external devices?
A. The most recent generation of running and exercising GPS watches has revolutionized the watch technology such that a platform to online transactions on running watches applications has been created. Modern running watches can now be interfaced with a computer by just simply plugging a running watch to computer.
These GPS running watches plugged into the computer can later be used to trace the runner while he is on the trail. They can also show information that are useful to the runner such as altitude, atmospheric barometric pressure, the GPS current location of the runner. total distance covered by the athlete and minutes taken by the runner to complete each mile.
The runner can get the information just after he completes the trail and gets to plug the GPS running watch to the computer. The information can be used by the runner to evaluate and analyses his trails and exercises. These type of modern GPS running watches are compatible with other external technological devices like Calorie burning Monitor, Heart Rate Monitors and Route Maps.
These is a feature in a modern running watch designed to give directions and map to the runner as he doing his trails. Unlike the Digital compass feature that only shows the runner whether he or she is on the east, west, south or north side of the location, Route maps show the exact places and paths to be followed by the runner as navigated by the computer.
Heart Rate Monitors:
Just as the name suggests, this feature is important to a runner as it measures the heart rate as the runner is in the trail. A runner should consider this feature when choosing his or her GPS running watch because the heart rate is a health aspect of a runner. The runner should be able to analyze his or her heart rate after practicing his or her trails. Is the heart rate high, low or just moderate? Is the heart rate the way it is recommended to be by the physician or doctor?
The two basic kinds of monitoring watches are chest strap models and finger sensor models. The Chest strap model just like the name suggests, it is an adjustable strap tied on the chest of the runner. The transmitter measures the impulses of the heart and the heart rate can be analyzed after the runner plug the device to the computer. The finger sensor model on the other side, measures the heart rate by gathering the runners impulse whenever the runner places his or her finger on the watch’s sensor. The chest strap model is more accurate in measuring the heart beat rate while the finger sensor model is affordable as compared to the chest strap model.
Calorie Burn Monitor:
Some fitness watches will have efficient capabilities of monitoring the heart rate, bu also have features that are bale to monitor the calorie being burned by the body. This works effectively for those athletes who are also involved in watching their diets. Though its very challenging to manually be updated with the regards to the amount o calories one consumes in a day and how much he or she needs to burn in a given workout, the the post workout calorie burnt determination. The calorie burning feature helps in keeping tabs on all the above and relates this to the data collected from monitoring your heart and other physical determinants like height and weight. After collecting all these data and other important information, it will then begin calculating it, it will then give a clear detailed guide specifically customized for the user. This feature is usually won around the chest.
Watches have really evolved with manufacturers coming up with new features to make them most efficient, but then its important to do a thorough research on a product before purchasing it. Determine whether it will help you achieve your fitness goals in the long run.
Q. How should i take care of my GPS running watch, to make sure its durable and functions well at all times?
A. In order to make sure that your GPS watch is maintained well and kept from early wear and tear its important that you follow the below special care tips:
Protecting your watch from any shock should be first priority. In order to make sure that your running watch lasts for long it’s important that you keep away from any external shocks that may arise from impacts on concrete areas like dropping it on the floor, accidentally banging it on a wall. The GPS running watches are very sensitive devices that such impacts will definitely interfere with their functionality.
So how do you take care of a running watch that is resistant to water? Each time the crown of the device is removed, do not immerse the watch in water. If your watch is still wet, please keep the crown intact, don’t turn it or pull it out. Even if the watch happens to be resistant to water, putting it in places where water is under high pressure will definitely damage it. The pressure might end up causing some moisture to penetrate into the running watch, also its important to always note that its not of certain that the water resistant feature of your watch will be permanent. And can be affected by wear and tear. in order to make sure this feature lasts longer, always keep your watch clean and dry.
If you are swimming or having your exercise in the ocean or sea, its important to note that the water in the sea is different from the water in the swimming pool. Clean your watch with fresh tap water then dry the running GPS watch off the. Remember to keep the crown intact and not to expose the watch to high pressure running water, i.e do not wash the watch directly from the tap.
Its not advisable to take a bath with the running watch on or if you are in a sauna. The watch will wear out faster due to the high temperatures and the soap. This also applies to hot springs.
Keep off the watch from any temperatures extremes, i.e very low temperatures and very high temperatures. This will totally kill your watch and damage its functionality. Its important to read the instruction manual from the manufacturer with regards to the temperature extremes.
While cleaning the watch its important not to use any chemical or cleaning solvents. Using these chemicals can cause a reaction and hence damage your running GPS watch. Also the chemicals can damage the strap of the GPS running watch, the casing or the band by weakening it or shading off its color.
The crown is a very important part of the watch that needs to taken care of. The crown of your running GPS watch should be kept away from corrosion and always be flexible. Make sure the crown is turned frequently so that it doesn’t get stiff and also its kept from getting corroded. Also make sure that no moisture is able to penetrate the crown at all times, keep the watch always dry after being exposed to water.
When cleaning the watch make sure you sue fresh water, do not expose the watch to high pressure water from the tap and always use a sift cloth. This will enhance the device’s durability and long time good functioning of the GPS running watch in general.
Q. I have an allergic reaction each time I put on my GPS running watch, what should I do?
A. Any accessories that ones wear can have an allergic reaction to ones skin. Especially if the accessory has any metal parts which when exposed to sweat during an exercise causes a reaction on the skin that is allergic and known as skin dermatitis. The metals that have such a reaction with sweat include chrome, nickel and cobalt, which are mostly used in making parts of running watches. These types of metals are also in watches that have leather straps since chrome is normally used in leather straps of watches for tanning.
Should you experience any case of skin dermatitis then its highly recommended that you stop wearing the running watch immediately then seek medical attention from a dermatologist. After consultation the doctor will be able to effectively guide you on what to do with regards to medication to take, what type of metals to keep off if you happen to be sensitive to metals. the best option for people who are likely to suffer from skin dermatitis is to buy titanium running GPS watches.
This was our approach when selecting the right GPS running watch. Remember that this type of technology is not just for triathlon runners or hardcore athletes. It can bring great advantages to a wide range of training levels. We hope this guide provided you with all the information you need when making you choice between form and function. Thanks for following along with us. Now you can start keeping track of your runs to improve your gains and keep on running!
Q. I am a beginner but want the perfect watch. Is it true that the more expensive a watch is, the better?
A. Of course, it’s not true. If You are a beginner, you won’t need a watch with advanced metrics. In addition, Your battery life may be shorter as You spend less time on running. Expensive doesn’t mean the best. The best watch for You must meet all Your requirements- there are many watches in lower prices that are full of useful accessories and aren’t worse than the expensive ones .Less expensive models may be more beneficial as for example they aren’t connected with social media and they don’t distract us.
A. Many watches can be easily connected to Your smartphone or computer. Because of this, You can track Your records, You don’t need to count how many calories You’ve burnt because it’s already done. Many watches can integrate with popular apps such as MyFitnessPal or Runtastic. This also enables You to share Your achievements in social media and join challenges. Being connected with social media can built strong running community.
Q. I can’t stand wearing a chest strap. Is there any other option for me?
A. If wearing a chest strap is a problem for You as You don’t feel comfortable, You must look for a watch with wrist-based heart rate sensors ( for example it’s Garmin Forerunner 630 in our review).However, wearing this has some disadvantages. You must really tighten wrist sensor because if You wear it loosely, Your readings may be inaccurate. The good news is that most people usually get used to it. When it comes to sprinting, chest strap is much better. Remember also that sometimes when You buy a watch, You get a chest strap with it but usually they are sold seperately.
Q. I’m preparing for a marathon. What should be the most important factor when I choosing what to buy?
A. There are many factors that You should consider. Let’s start with battery life. It should be up to 10 hours. Navigation is the next thing, You have to keep record of Your tracks so connection to computer or smartphone will be also advisable. Measuring heart rate is also important so as to keep an appropriate intensity of your training. Some watches have special programs for runners- check if the watch You want has one for long-distance running. Preparation for marathon takes a lot of time so make sure Your future watch perform well outdoor but also indoor.
Here are some sources we used while conducting our research
It’s important to use a plethora of sources to ensure quality information. We like to utilize trusted clinical partners and manufactures when providing our readers with the most up-to-date statistics found in all our buying guides. We are also very interested in taking what everyday users have to say about specific products, and we perform our due diligence to make sure that quality research goes into every guide. Here are some sources which helped us with this guide: